Bus station surroundings, Komunarskyy rayon, Zaporizhzhia
About the place
The Shenvize colony in the southeastern suburb of Oleksandrivsk was founded in 1797 by the Mennonite families who migrated from Prussia.
At the end of the 18th century, Russia needed immigrants to settle in the newly annexed southern territories. In 1762-1763 Empress Catherine II issued decrees that allowed foreign colonists to enter and settle in southern Russia.
The lively industrial development was facilitated by the construction in 1875 near the Shenvize Catherine Railway. The appearance of the railway station caused a real construction boom - in a few years many industrial enterprises appeared, some of which turned into large factories: a branch of the Abraham Kopp agricultural machinery plant of Khortytsia; mechanical and cast-iron foundry of the commercial and industrial association Lepp & Valman; machine-building plant Sons of Hildebrandt and Priss; cast iron plant; plant of agricultural machinery and tools Badovsky. During the years 1880-1885. Niebuhr built three steam mills.
Hubert and Amitin are building sawmills. In 1900, the large brewery Yanzen began to operate. Streets Pyvovarna and lanes Reimerovskyi and Mlynovyi.
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, a large profitable houses are being built on the territory of Shenvize, so Minaev, the owner of brick factories, is building a two-story profitable house with 12 apartments where, in addition, Vibe flour trading and Zhdanovska tavern are located (2 Soborny Ave.) .
A beautiful Hubert building appeared on 11 Soborny Avenue. In this house, the tenant Tavonius opened a pharmacy on the ground floor.
Private houses are being built - the residence of factory owners in the unique German Art Nouveau style: Nibur House, Kopp House, Dick House and Mayor of Siemens.
The colony was built according to the type of traditional German villages: in the center there is a church, volost government, and a school. The first street of the colony was Bazarna Street, it was laid parallel to the channel of the Mokra Moskovka River. Perpendicular to it, the street was called Shenvizka (later Vokzalna, now - Soborna Street).
A significant part of the buildings of the Mennonite colony of Shenvize has survived to this day, namely: the mill of Nibur, the mansion of Kopp, the Friesian church building, the Hubert profitable building with the Tavonius pharmacy, the Dick and Lepp mansions.
The town-planning planning structure of the district was formed on the principle of the placement of residential buildings, profitable buildings and houses for the residence of factory workers on the red lines of the streets.
Manufacturing enterprises are located in the depths of the quarters with access to the railway tracks. Production related to the scaffold alloy is concentrated along the Mokra Moskovka river.
In 1901, a metal bridge was built across the river with sidewalks on both sides and a metal fence with granite columns (preserved in a reconstructed form). In 1907, a railway bridge was built, which has still not been preserved.
The factories of the former Shenvize colony became nationalized and became the basis for the construction of a combine production plant. The first Kommunar combine was released in 1930
In June 1959, the first Zaporozhets mini-car came out of the experimental workshop.
Numerous reconstructions on the territory of the plant contributed not only to the reconstruction of many historic buildings, but also to the deterioration of objects representing the architectural heritage of the city. Destruction in peacetime caused much more losses than during the war years - factory buildings were built on the site of the Mennonite cemetery. The territory of the former colony of Shenvize is a monument of architecture and urban planning